In other cases, criminals will leave the PIN covering intact and instead use online bots or other kinds of computer software to guess the PIN code. In many cases, the codes are just four digits, making them easy for hackers to crack.
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Occasionally during the game, you will randomly targeted by hackers. When this happens you must participate in a couple hacking minigames. The first minigame you are presented with is ZoneWall and when properly beaten can be used to get an Instant Hack Block. When this is failed you will be presented with a StackPUSHER, NodeH3X3R, or MemD3FR4G3R. While it may seem like a better idea to beat ZoneWall to skip the hacking minigame, hacking is a very profitable way to earn DosCoin. If you have a backdoor when you beat whatever hack you are given after failing ZoneWall you will be given a random amount of DosCoin that is dependent on the difficulty of the hack you are given. Fortunately, the difficulty of the hack can be controlled by how many levels of Zonewall are failed.
While the hacks may seem quite easy when the game first starts, they can very quickly become overwhelming at harder difficulties. It is highly recommended you practice hacking every chance you get. In addition, it helps to have a pen and paper when you happen to receive a higher difficulty MemD3FR4G3R.
In Mass Effect 2 and beyond, some missions are made all the better depending on the crew of choice, but loyalty missions will hard-lock choices for you. This makes it easy not to accidentally do an important story part without the right party members. For Miranda's loyalty mission, if you try to talk to her contact on the Citadel mission, they will just ignore you while they are on their phone. You won't be able to start it without her, but other missions aren't quite so clear-cut. These cues are also important for those aforementioned ship upgrades. If you're talking to a character and they mention there is an area of improvement or they need certain food ingredients, listen to that. That's BioWare nudging you into a certain direction, a direction that - worst-case scenario - could save someone's life.
Note: This can only be done while playing as Michael. The Epsilon quest line is the most time consuming in GTA V. It becomes available as soon as you unlock Michael as a playable character. Follow the step-by-step walkthrough below to learn how to trigger the missions. You will also need to have at least $90,500 with Michael. Certain donations have to be made, and an expensive outfit has to be bought. However, completing all of "The Truth" Epsilon missions can earn you up to $2,100,000. In the last quest, you have the opportunity to earn $2.1 million and a gold medal. If you are specifically looking for the five Epsilon vehicle locations (as these are the hardest part of the quest line), go to 2:31 in the video below. All of these vehicles have fixed spawn points. They will spawn at the shown points every time.
Note: This can only be done while playing as Trevor. After completing the "Mr. Philips" story mission, there will be an orange question mark on the map at the northeast end of the desert. Go there to talk to Maude and unlock the bail bond side missions. Then, go back to your house, take a nap, and you should receive an e-mail with details about your target. You will need to go east to the "Davis Quartz" area. Once you locate the target, quickly shoot the tires of his car, and when he tries to run away, hurt him, but do not kill him. To hurt him, you can hit him with your car, but not too hard. You can also use the stun gun (can be bought at the gun shop). He will then enter your car automatically. Next, drive back to Maude. After turning over the bail bond target to Maude, you will get the "Wanted: Alive Or Alive" achievement. Note: It is possible to not get this achievement if you kill all bail bond targets instead of bringing them in alive. There are four bail bond targets. Thus, you will have four opportunities to get this achievement.
One of biggest things we often do that makes it easier for a hacker, and thus harder on us, is include Easter eggs and cheat codes in the single-player portion of our games. Considered to be practically a requirement, they expose extralegal capabilities of our game engines and make it much easier for the hackers to locate the data and code that controls that functionality.
One way to inhibit this form of cheating is to encrypt the command packets so that the proxies can't decode them. But there are limits to the extent that encryption can be used on communications. Most FPS games can send and receive a couple of kilobytes of data or more per player per second, and have to allow for lost and out-of-order packets. The encryption therefore has to be fast enough not to impact frame rate, and a given packet's encryption can not be dependent on any other packet unless guaranteed delivery is used. And once the encryption is cracked, the game is vulnerable until the encryption is revised, which usually involves issuing a patch. Then the hacking starts over.
Another way to make life more difficult for the proxy creator is to make the command syntax dynamic. Using something as simple as a seed number that's given to the game when it connects and a custom random number function, the actual opcodes used in the communication packets can be changed from game to game, or even more often. The seed itself doesn't have to be transmitted; it could be derived from some aspect of the current game itself. The idea here is that since a proxy sees all the communications, but only the communications, the random seed is derived from something not explicitly communicated. Foolproof? No. But it's far more difficult to hack, forcing the hackers to start from scratch.
There are a couple of ways the hacker accomplishes this. The hacker may go after the variables that control the display characteristics of the map. With the help of a good debugger and single-player cheat codes to reveal the whole map, finding the locations in memory that control the map display is fairly simple. Then either the game .EXE file is modified to initialize those map control values differently, or a program is made that attaches to the game's memory space and modifies the variable values while the game is running. To combat this, the values of those variables should be regularly reported to other players in the form of a checksum or CRC code. Unfortunately, that only raises the stakes; the hackers then just attack the code that reads those control values (easy enough to find quickly), inverting or NOP'ing out the instructions that act upon them.
In the RTS map-hack case, it is necessary for some change to be made to the game; either the code or some data is in a modified state while the game is running. And if something has been modified, you can attempt to detect that.
This is a pointer to a pointer to an object containing an array of integers, one of which contains the value of the player's current stockpile of wood, and all the objects are dynamically allocated. The hacker's point was that if you trace back through all the dynamic pointers, you eventually find a static variable or base pointer. The different spots where his breakpoints were triggered were from member functions at different levels in the class hierarchy, and even from outside the class hierarchy containing the data. And it was finding an instance of that latter access condition that was the jackpot. There it was in his debugger's disassembly window: a base address and the Assembly code to traverse through the classes and handle player and resource index numbers.
Considering all this, I found a couple of strategies that can greatly reduce the likelihood of this sort of passive attack. Again, these tips cannot guarantee 100 percent security, but they make the hacker's job much harder.
The first strategy is to encrypt very significant values in memory at all times. Upon consideration, most game variables are not significant enough to warrant such protection - the hit points of a particular object don't tell anyone much, while a drop of 1,000 food and 800 gold from a player's resources does indicate that the player is advancing to the Imperial Age, which is an event of large strategic importance in our game. Simple encryption is relatively easy when all access to the variables goes through assessor functions. A communicative function such as XOR is your friend here, as it alters values upon storing, restores them upon reading, and is extremely fast. The whole point is to make it very hard for the hacker to find the variables he is searching for in the first place. Values the hacker would know to look for are not left around so that a simple scan can find them. In C++, our encrypted assessor functions for game resources look something like what's shown in Listing 1.
My last category of cheats is something of a catchall for exploitable problems a game may have on particular hardware or operating conditions. A good example is the "construction-cancelled" bug that was found amazingly in both Age of Empires and Starcraft at about the same time. The element needed to make it work was extreme lag in network communications, to the point of a momentary disconnection. When this happened, the game engines stopped advancing to the next game turn while they waited for communications to resume. During this time, the user interface still functioned, so the player didn't think the game had locked up. While the game was in this state, a player could issue a command to cancel construction of a building, returning its resources to the player's inventory - only the player would issue the command over and over as many times as possible. Normally, a player could only issue one Cancel command per turn, but because the game simulation was in a holding state, multiple command requests went into the queue. Because of some necessities of RTS engine design, when an object is destroyed during a turn by something such as a Cancel command, the destruction is postponed until after all the commands for that turn have been processed. The result was the command executed multiple times during one game update. 2b1af7f3a8