Sources that are part of a larger work (e.g. a chapter in a book, an article in a periodical, a page on a website) are enclosed in quotation marks. The titles of self-contained sources (e.g. a book, a movie, a periodical, a website) are instead italicized. A title in the container position is always italicized.
If your Works Cited list includes more than one work by a particular author, arrange these sources alphabetically by title. In place of the author element, write three em dashes for each source listed after the first.
Our mission at Cite This For Me is to educate students on the benefits of utilizing multiple sources in their written work and the importance of accurately citing all source material. This guide has been written to support students, writers and researchers by offering clear, well-considered advice on the usage of Chicago citations.
Each Chicago citation in the body of your written work should be directly keyed to a bibliography or reference list entry. Compiling a full list of all the source material that has contributed to your research and writing process is the perfect opportunity to show your reader the effort you have gone to in researching your chosen topic, ensuring that you get the grade you deserve.
The 16th edition of the Chicago citation manual (2010) was the first edition to be published both in hardcover and online. The manual reflects the changes undergone by the publishing industry in response to the digital age, and the subsequent evolution in the way in which authors and publishers work. It addresses a diverse range of source types that define academic publishing today; from URLs and DOIs to ebooks, Instagram and foreign languages, and provides comprehensive examples that illustrate how to cite online and digital sources.
It is important to bear in mind, however, that simply citing your sources does not keep your paper free from plagiarism. Plagiarism can occur if you use an exact quote but do not identify the exact quote as such with quotation marks even if you do cite it. Additionally, if you paraphrase a source but just change a few words here and there instead of making it your own, you could be committing plagiarism even with a citation. For more information on incorporating the work of others into your paper, the CMOS offers some helpful guidelines in sections 13.1-13.6.
The importance of attributing your research goes beyond avoiding plagiarism, and while it may seem like a tedious process, attributing and documenting your sources is an essential practice for all academic writers. The use of accurate Chicago style citations validate your work by demonstrating that you have thoroughly researched your chosen subject and found a variety of scholarly opinions and ideas to support, or challenge, your thesis. As an academic writer, your written work is a chance to engage in conversation with the scholars that you are citing by placing your own ideas in the context of the larger intellectual conversation about your topic. In correctly using citations, you also lead your reader directly to the sources you have consulted, thereby enabling them to form their own views on your opinions and appreciate your contribution to the topic.
Reference sources include those that summarize information about topics. You might read some pages on Wikipedia, check out an encyclopedia entry on your topic, look at a specialized dictionary entry (e.g., a literary or philosophical dictionary), or even read news articles that provide a concise overview of the topic at hand. These sources will help you to understand your topic broadly, but generally are not sources considered acceptable to cite in scholarly work. They are, however, excellent starting points and may point you to important and relevant scholarly literature you should read.
An important part of research is finding and analyzing primary sources, or sources that provide original material about your given topic or question. What is considered to be a primary source will vary significantly depending on your field of research and the time period about which you are writing.
For example, if you are writing about Renaissance literature, a text by Shakespeare might be one of your primary sources. If you are studying Renaissance history, you might be looking at letters written during that time in an archive or published critical edition. If you are looking at modern current events, social media posts revealing reactions to these events or posting videos of the events might be your primary source. For social sciences, data collected through surveys might be your primary source. Primary sources provide the evidence for the argument you are going to make in your paper.
MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.
Citing sources is often an afterthought in paper writing because formatting citations correctly is time-consuming and confusing, and staying on top of source management manually can be hard. A citation generator makes this easier by:
If you create your own table by compiling data from multiple sources, you will still need to cite where you got your information from. You do not need to give the full bibliographic citation in the note, an author and date is sufficient.
7. We support the international efforts to keep food supply chains functioning under challenging circumstances. We are committed to addressing food insecurity by ensuring accessibility, affordability, and sustainability of food and food products for those in needs, particularly in developing countries and least developed countries. We reiterate our support for open, transparent, inclusive, predictable, and non-discriminatory, rules-based agricultural trade based on WTO rules. We highlight the importance of enhancing market predictability, minimizing distortions, increasing business confidence, and allowing agriculture and food trade to flow smoothly. We reaffirm the need to update global agricultural food trade rules and to facilitate trade in agricultural and food products, as well as the importance of not imposing export prohibitions or restrictions on food and fertilizers in a manner inconsistent with relevant WTO provisions. We are committed to sustained supply, in part based on local food sources, as well as diversified production of food and fertilizers to support the most vulnerable from the disruptions in food trade supply chain. We will avoid adversely impacting food security deliberately. We commit to facilitate humanitarian supplies for ensuring access to food in emergency situations and call on UN Member States and all relevant stakeholders with available resources to provide in-kind donations and resources to support countries most affected by the food crisis, as required and based on assessed needs by governments of affected countries. We continue to support the carve out of humanitarian activities from sanctions and call on all nations to support this aim, including through current efforts at the UN. We will continue to closely monitor the state of global food security and nutrition.
16. We acknowledge the urgent need to strengthen policies and mobilize financing, from all sources in a predictable, adequate and timely manner to address climate change, biodiversity loss, and environmental degradation including significantly increasing support for developing countries. We recall and further urge developed countries to fulfil their commitments to deliver on the goal of jointly mobilizing USD 100 billion per year urgently by 2020 and through to 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation action and transparency on implementation. We also support continued deliberations on an ambitious new collective quantified goal of climate finance from a floor of USD 100 billion per year to support developing countries, that helps in fulfilling the objective of the UNFCCC and implementation of the Paris Agreement. We emphasize the importance of transparency in the implementation of the pledges. We also recall the Glasgow Climate Pact urging developed countries to at least double their collective provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing countries, from 2019 levels, by 2025, in the context of achieving a balance between mitigation and adaptation in the provision of scaled up financial resource, recalling Article 9 of the Paris Agreement.
25. We encourage international collaboration to further develop digital skills and digital literacy to harness the positive impacts of digital transformation, especially for women, girls, and people in vulnerable situations, and further support efforts to develop reliable skills and literacy. We note the increasing demands for a workforce adept at utilizing emerging technologies, education and training, reskilling and upskilling to meet such demands. We also seek to increase connectivity by accelerating high capacity and secure infrastructure and provide more accessible and affordable resources and tools, while also improve the digital literacy skills of learners, teachers, school leaders, and other educational professional to ensure universal access to education, accelerate learning recovery and promote lifelong learning.
38. We recognize the importance of revitalizing infrastructure investment in a sustainable, inclusive, accessible, and affordable way. We endorse the voluntary and non-binding G20/GI Hub Framework on How to Best Leverage Private Sector Participation to Scale Up Sustainable Infrastructure Investment which will consider country circumstances, and which will complement investment from other sources, including public investment and finance provided by MDBs. We note the Outcome Document from the 2022 G20 Infrastructure Investors Dialogue. To enhance social inclusion and address subnational disparities, we endorse the G20-OECD Policy Toolkit on Mobilizing Funding and Financing for Inclusive and Quality Infrastructure Investment in Regions and Cities, prepared with the support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). We note the Preliminary Findings Report on Gender Inclusive Approaches in Private Participation in Infrastructure in promoting gender considerations during the infrastructure lifecycle and look forward to the final report. We endorse the InfraTracker 2.0 which will enable both the public and private sectors towards transformative infrastructure investment post-COVID-19, by providing insights into long-term infrastructure strategies and plans. To narrow the digital divide, we endorse the G20 Compendium of Case Studies on Digital Infrastructure Finance: Issues, Practices and Innovations. We endorse the Quality Infrastructure Investment (QII) Indicators and associated guidance note, developed for the G20, which are voluntary and non-binding and consider country circumstances, and we look forward to further discussions on how the QII indicators can be applied. We welcome progress made towards developing a possible new governance model for the Global Infrastructure Hub (GI Hub) and ask that principles to guide the process be finalized as soon as possible. 2b1af7f3a8